VHF, Argos and GPS/Argos Systems for Elephants

Elephant regaining consciousness wearing an early GPS collar system
Asian elephant with early Argos system

VHF Systems Argos Only Systems GPS/Argos Systems

VHF Key Features

  • Two configurable power levels to accommodate either greater range or greater life.
  • Duty cycling to extend operational life
  • Mortality sensing option
  • Activity monitoring option in models containing the MK-8 electronics
  • Field programmability available in units containing the MK-9 electronics
  • Units can be refurbished to their original condition at the factory.

VHF Models

Model Dimensions L x W x H (in, cm) Canister Weight (g) Life @60BPM
Standard Power (months)
Transmitter Electronics
MOD-600-3 3.0 x 2.7 x 1.9
7.6 x 6.8 x 4.9
485 123 MK-11

Data Logging Option (Option 350)

The Data Logging Option for MK-11 and MK-12 transmitters (Option 350) allows sensor data from the MS6 mortality-motion sensor, MA activity sensor, and/or the MS4 temperature sensor to be stored in transmitter memory and made available for download if the transmitter is able to be retrieved at the end of a study. Additional information regarding how these sensors work is provided in the Sensor Options section below. This option requires use of Telonics Data Converter to download the stored data.

For the MS6 motion-mortality sensor, the data logging records each date and time the sensor switches from active/alive to inactive/mortality or back. Assuming that no other sensor measurements are being stored, the data log can accommodate about 0.5 million transitions. Note that smaller units may not have sufficient battery capacity to fill the memory. The most recent 9-16 such transitions are recorded even without this option, but this option stores all such transitions.

For the MA activity sensor, the data logging option stores accelerometer data at user-defined intervals. These intervals may be the same throughout the anticipated life of the transmitter or they may change "seasonally". The activity data recorded is the number of active seconds (or other defined classification interval) during a defined collection interval. For example the number of active seconds in a one hour collection interval would be saved as a number between 0-3600. Assuming that no other sensor measurements are being stored, the data log can accommodate about 2.0 million measurements based on 30sec, 1 minute, or 5 minute intervals or about 1.3 million based on longer intervals. The activity collection schedule for data logging is independent of any activity schedule selected to control pulse rate.

For the MS4 temperature sensor, the data logging option stores temperature data at user-defined intervals (in 0.16°C increments). These intervals may be the same throughout the anticipated life of the transmitter or they may change "seasonally". The data log can store an estimated 1.3 million measurements if no other sensor data are stored. The temperature collection schedule for data logging is independent of any temperature schedule selected to control pulse rate.

Specifications for Transmitter Electronics

MK11/12 Transmitter General Specifications

MK-11 and MK-12 beacons are microprocessor controlled pulsed-CW transmitters, designed for operation within the 137 - 225 MHz frequency range. Each MK-11 beacon transmits on a single, field-programmable frequency (within the frequency range that is ordered). MK-11 beacons also support 3 field-programmable power levels. The MK-12 beacon is crystal based, and therefore each beacon is built to operate on a specific frequency and with a specific power output (four power levels to choose from when ordering).

Frequency Range MK11:
137 - 143 MHz (option 700),
143 - 156 MHz (option 710),
154 - 164 MHz (option 720),
162 - 174 MHz (option 730),
164 - 182 MHz (option 740),
182 - 201 MHz (option 750),
201 - 222 MHz (option 760)

MK12:
140 - 225 MHz
Frequency Tolerance MK11:
Calibration: ±3 ppm max at room temperature / ±5 ppm from -40° to +70°C
Aging: <1ppm/yr
Shock: <1ppm 3000g x 0.2ms x ½ sine x 3 directions

MK12:
Calibration: ±17 ppm at room temperature / ±25 ppm from -40° to +70°C
Load: <7ppm typical for VSWR < 6:1
Supply Voltage: <3ppm typical over supply voltage range at 25°C
Aging: <1ppm/yr
Shock: <1ppm 3000g x 0.2ms x ½ sine x 3 directions
VSWR Stability MK11: RF output stable to 10:1 VSWR, all phases.
Radiated harmonic levels are degraded with poor load VSWR.
Spurious emission specification maintained for > 10:1 VSWR.

MK12: RF output stable to 5:1 VSWR, all phases.
Radiated harmonic levels are degraded with poor load VSWR.
Spurious emission specification maintained for > 5:1 VSWR.
Output Power
MK11: Field Programmable using TPP
Transmit Power Peak Power Output
Relative to Medium Power
Low 0.5 * Medium Power
Med  
High 2.0 * Medium Power

MK12: Ordering Options for Power Level
Option Transmit Power Peak Power Output Levels
Relative to Standard Power
200 Low (Temperature > -20°C) 0.5 * Medium Power (Higher efficiency)
202 Low 0.5 * Medium Power
204 Medium  
206 High 2.0 * Medium Power

Output power is measured into 50 Ω load. Effective Isotropic Radiated Power (EIRP) varies, depending on packaging, antenna configuration, and immediate environmental conditions.
Emission Designator MK11: 2k00P0N -
California users: These transmitters meet the California requirement of EIRP < 0.009 W for all conditions.
MK12: 1k00P0N -
California users: These transmitters exceed the emission designator requirement of 2k00P0N for operation in California. The 1k00P0N emission designator is identical to the 2k00P0N except that it occupies only half of the 2 kHz bandwidth allowed by the State of California for wildlife tracking.
Harmonic and Coherent Spurious Suppression MK11: <-30 dBc into 50Ω load
MK12: Coherent Spurious <-10 dBc
Spurious Suppression MK11: <-35dBc typical at > 10kHz offset from carrier
MK12: Non-Coherent Spurious <-50 dBc
RF Pulse Width 15 msec standard
Can optionally be configured from 10 - 250 msec
Pulse Period Configurable from 250 - 5000 msec (12-240 Bpm)
RTC Accuracy / Seasonal Timing Temperature Compensated:
± 12min/yr max
Temperature Range -40°C to +70°C (Note: Temperature range is for the transmitter only. The power supply must provide the required peak current and voltage requirements for the transmitter over the expected temperature range.)
Shutdown Component Externally shutdown by presence of a small magnet
Available Sensors
MS6 Mortality - Motion Sensor
MA Activity Sensor
MS4 Temperature Sensor
MS5 Temperature-triggered Mortality Sensor
Sensor descriptions available separately

Sensor Options for VHF Transmitters using the MK-11 or MK-12 Electronics

MK-11 or MK-12 Sensor Options



VHF Systems Argos Only Systems GPS/Argos Systems
 

Argos Only Key Features

  • Flexible Transmission schedules
  • Data compression is available when utilizing the Argos 31 byte message. Fewer messages and more data through.
  • Powerful data collection and transfer capabilities allow the units to acquire, queue, and transmit temperature and activity information.
  • User programmability allows changes in transmission, activity, and temperature schedules as well as Argos ID codes, uplink power levels and Argos frequencies.
  • All data are Stored on Board (SOB) the unit and can be downloaded upon retrieval.
  • The Telonics Data converter (TDC) provides complete data decoding of Argos DS files and supports complete memory downloading. TDC provides a standard csv output file (comma separated value) with time stamps for all data collected. TDC can be run in the "batch mode" for hands off operation.
  • TDC allows you to plot GPS fixes and Argos locations with Google Earth.
  • Shutdown with a small magnet allows users to turn each of these configurations "on" or "off".
  • Units can be refurbished to their original condition at the factory.

Argos Only Models

Model Dimensions L x W x H (in, cm) Canister Weight (g) Estimated Collar Weight (kg) Power Level (mW) Operational Life (hours) Temperature Range (°C) VHF Beacon Onboard
TAW-4710-3 4.25 x 2.7 x 2.3
10.9 x 6.9 x 5.8
875 ~15.28 500 (Typ) 10632 -40 to +70 Yes
TAW-4710H-3 4.25 x 2.7 x 2.3
10.9 x 6.9 x 5.8
875 ~15.28 800 (Typ) 5928 -40 to +70 Yes

1. Reduced power modules are available with approximately 22% increased life. Contact the lab for more information.
2. Operational life expectancy is based on a continuous series of transmissions of a 4-byte Argos message at a 60-second repetition rate at 25°C.

Argos Only Specifications: Electronic and Packaging

TAW-4xxx Specifications (Uses the µGPSI-22 System)

Timing AccuracyTiming is synchronized to GPS time when available. If the GPS time is not then internal timing accuracy is:
6 min/year at 25° C
30 min/yr -20 to +40° C
47 min/yr -40 to +70° C
Available SensorsMortality, Activity, Temperature, Low Voltage
Argos Operating FrequencyARGOS Frequencies:
401.6300MHz to 401.6800MHz in 1 kHz Steps
Brazilian SCD-1: Channels C1 to C9
401.6180MHz to 401.6220MHz in 500Hz Steps
Argos Frequency Stability±0.5 ppm maximum from -30° to +70° C
±2.0 ppm maximum from -40° to -30° C
Argos Initial Frequency Error±0.5 ppm maximum at +23°C, ±2° C
Argos Aging±2.0 ppm maximum after 1 year
Argos RF Power OutStandard Power Version: 400mW (+26dBm) or 500mW (+27dBm) nominal into 50 Ω (User selectable using TPP programming software)
High Power Version (H): 800 mW (29 dbm) ±1db nominal into 50 Ω (User selectable using TPP programming software)

Note 1: Transmit current will increase by approximately 10% from the +25° C measurement. Conversely, at -40° C it will decrease by approximately 10% from the +25° C measurement.
Note 2: Transmit current and RF power out are sensitive to VSWR. Both can be degraded significantly if the antenna or antenna coax are of poor quality or not correctly tuned and matched to the ARGOS/Brazilian frequency band 50 ohm RF output impedance.
Argos Spurs and Harmonics<-40dBc minimum, -60dBc typical (Coherent Spurious)
<-50dBc minimum, -60dBc typical (Non-coherent spurious)
Available VHF Frequency OptionsOption 705 140-154 MHz;
Option 707 144-158 MHz;
Option 715 154-171 MHz;
Option 720 160-177 MHz;
Option 740 174-192 MHz;
Option 750 191-210 MHz;
Option 760 210-237 MHz

The MK10 frequency can be programmed in 100Hz steps within a given frequency range.
VHF Frequency StabilityBetter than ±3ppm at room temperature;
±5 ppm total tolerance over full temperature range
VHF Operating Temperature-40° to + 70°C
VHF Pulse WidthProgrammable (10 to 250 msec)
VHF Pulse PeriodProgrammable (560 to 5000 msec)
Period 1 (normal tracking mode)
Inactive period (if no motion for selected time)
Available VHF SensorsMortality Sensor (parameters are user programmable)
VHF Transmitter TimingProgrammable seasons and duty cycles.
VHF Power OutputProgrammable Medium/High power (measured into 50 Ω load). Effective Isotropic Radiated Power (EIRP) varies, depending on packaging, antenna configuration, and immediate environmental conditions.
* California Users: This transmitter meets the California requirement of EIRP <0.009W for all configurations.
VHF Emission Designator2k00P0N
VHF Harmonic SuppressionBetter than 30dB (>40 dB typical)
VHF Spurious Emissions<-35 dBc at 10kHz offset from carrier
VHF FrequencyAging: <2ppm/yr
Shock: <1ppm 3000g x 0.3ms x ½ sine x 3 directions
VHF VSWRRF output stable to 10:1 VSWR, all phases
Radiated harmonic levels are degraded with poor load VSWR.
Spurious emission specification maintained for >10:1 VSWR
VHF ProgrammingTransmitter parameters programmable via antenna "1-pin" interface and Telonics TPP PC software.

Packaging/Housing Specifications

TAW-4xxx Packing/Housing SpecificationsElectronics are sealed in hermetic metal canisters containing the electronics, batteries, and all interconnects. Glass to metal feed-thru technology is used to exit antennas and power. This packing is hermetic and can be tested utilizing a helium leak bomb test for hermeticity to assure < 1 part in 106 atmospheric CC per second.

Collar Specifications

TAW-4xxx Collar DesignsCollar designs are species specific.

Argos Related Products

TDC Telonics Data Converter Telonics Data Converter (TDC) is used to convert raw data from Telonics transmitters into data reports and to display locations on Google Earth and Google Maps. You can review TDC reports in Microsoft Excel or other spreadsheet programs.

TPP Telonics Product Programmer Telonics Product Programmer (TPP) is a powerful software tool used to program Telonics transmitters, and Telonics CR-5 and CR-7 collar release mechanisms. TPP gives you the ability to modify aspects of your Telonics GEN4 GPS and VHF transmitters including data collection and transmission intervals. TPP is designed for ease of use, with simple point-and-click navigation through the program.

TSC-4A and TSC-7 Fast/Active Smart Cable The TSC-4A and TSC-7 are multi-use USB interface cable and features a USB A type computer connector and a male BNC (bayonet style) embedded device connector. The BNC connector allows quick and easy attachment of various embedded device adapters (available separately).

CN008351-001 Adapter Adapter, female BNC to alligator clips for use with the TSC-7A cable. This adapter is used for systems where programming/download connections are made using the antenna tip or saltwater switch buttons.

TSTR-4 Test Receiver The TSTR-4 provides transmit indication for Argos PTTs (401.650 MHz). Provides both a visual indicator and audio tone with each transmission. Operates on a standard 9 volt battery. Designed specifically for short range (2-3 feet) testing of Argos transmitters.



VHF Systems Argos Only Systems GPS/Argos Systems
 

GPS/Argos Key Features

  • Lower current consumption provides a 100% increase in operational life or an increase in performance during that same operational time frame.
  • The newest GPS receiver technology provides faster time to fix.
  • Up to 24 positions per day can be recovered through Argos by using the innovative paging date protocol.
  • More flexible programming schedules available to the user.
  • Single printed wiring board construction and higher integration makes the electronics more rugged and increases reliability in high shock/vibration environments.
  • uGPSi 20 is supported by a GUI programming interface (TPP) making it possible for user to program their own systems and simulate the performance of the system prior to deployment.
  • The Telonics Data converter (TDC) provides complete data decoding of Argos DS files and supports complete memory downloading. TDC provides a standard csv output file (comma separated value) with time stamps for all data collected. TDC can be run in the "batch mode" for hands off operation.
  • TDC allows you to plot GPS fixes and Argos locations with Google Earth.
  • Shutdown with a small magnet allows users to turn each of these configurations "on" or "off".
  • Units can be refurbished to their original condition at the factory.

GPS/Argos Models

Configuration Dimensions L x W x H (in, cm) Canister Weight (g) Estimated Collar Weight (kg) 1 YR Operational Life 2 YR Operational Life
TGW-4780-3 4.25 x 2.7 x 2.3
10.9 x 6.9 x 5.8
875 ~15.28 15 min fix interval / Argos uplink 12 hrs every day 40 min fix interval / Argos uplink 6 hrs every day
TGW-4780H-3 4.25 x 2.7 x 2.3
10.9 x 6.9 x 5.8
875 ~15.28 15 min fix interval / Argos uplink 8 hrs every day 1 hr fix interval / Argos uplink 6 hrs every day

*These intervals were calculated on TPP using the following criteria: average environmental temperature of 25°C, expected average time to fix of 75 seconds, Pulse periods; successful GPS fix 1500ms, unsuccessful GPS fix 1000ms, and use scheduled GPS fixes to predict Argos satellite passes

GPS/Argos Specifications: Electronic and Packaging

GPS/Argos Systems

General System Specifications

Timing Accuracy Timing is synchronized to GPS time when available. If the GPS time is not then internal timing accuracy is:
6 min/year at 25° C
30 min/yr -20 to +40° C
47 min/yr -40 to +70° C
Available Sensors Mortality, Activity, Temperature, Low Voltage
Memory Capacity Capable of storing 500K fixes in nonvolatile flash memory in association with other sensor data.

GPS Receiver Specifications

Standby Current 0 µA
Performance 12 channels
-159 dBm tracking sensitivity
-145 dBm acquisition sensitivity
Datum WGS-84
Time to First Fix (TTFF) 40 sec typical (with clear view of sky)

µGPSI-022 VHF Transmitter Specifications

Available Frequency Options Option 705 140-154 MHz
Option 707 146-160 MHz
Option 715 156-172 MHz
Option 720 160-177 MHz
Option 740 174-192 MHz
Option 750 191-210 MHz
Option 760 210-237 MHz

The MK10 frequency can be programmed in 100 Hz steps within a given frequency range.
Frequency Stability Better than ±3 ppm at room temperature;
±5 ppm total tolerance over full temperature range
Operating Temperature -40° to + 70° C (end user must ensure that the power supply/battery can provide the required peak current and voltage)
Pulse Width Programmable (10 to 250 msec)
Pulse Period Programmable (560 to 5000 msec)
3 separate pulse period values selectable:
Period 1 (indicates last GPS fix successful)
Period 2 (indicates last GPS fix unsuccessful)
Mortality period (if no motion for selected time)
Available Sensors Mortality Sensor (parameters are user programmable)
Transmitter Timing Programmable seasons and duty cycles.
Power Output Programmable Low/Medium/High power.
Effective Isotropic Radiated Power (EIRP) varies, depending on packaging, antenna configuration, and immediate environmental conditions.
* California Users: This transmitter meets the California requirement of EIRP <0.009W for all configurations.
Emission Designator 2k00P0N
Harmonic Suppression Better than 30 dB (>40 dB typical)
Spurious Emissions <-35 dBc at 10 kHz offset from carrier
Frequency Aging: <2 ppm/yr
Shock: <1 ppm 3000 g x 0.3 ms x ½ sine x 3 dir
VSWR RF output stable to 10:1 VSWR, all phases
Radiated harmonic levels are degraded with poor load VSWR.
Spurious emission specification maintained for >10:1 VSWR
Programming Transmitter parameters programmable via antenna "1-pin" interface and Telonics TPP PC software.

Packing/Housing Specifications Electronics are sealed in hermetic metal canisters containing the electronics, batteries, and all interconnects. Glass to metal feed-thru technology is used to exit antennas and power. This packing is hermetic and can be tested utilizing a helium leak bomb test for hermeticity to assure < 1 part in 106 atmospheric CC per second.

GPS Antenna Specifications In collar mounted wildlife configurations The GPS antenna is designed to be mounted on the dorsal surface of the neck. The GPS antenna is installed in a high impact nonconductive plastic housing. The form of the housing presents sloping sides so that it will be impervious to chewing and gnawing as is possible. A highly armored antenna cable connects the GPS antenna to the instrument package.

Collar Specifications Collar designs are species specific.

GPS/Argos Related Products

TDC Telonics Data Converter Telonics Data Converter (TDC) is used to convert raw data from Telonics transmitters into data reports and to display locations on Google Earth and Google Maps. You can review TDC reports in Microsoft Excel or other spreadsheet programs.

TPP Telonics Product Programmer Telonics Product Programmer (TPP) is a powerful software tool used to program Telonics transmitters, and Telonics CR-5 and CR-7 collar release mechanisms. TPP gives you the ability to modify aspects of your Telonics GEN4 GPS and VHF transmitters including data collection and transmission intervals. TPP is designed for ease of use, with simple point-and-click navigation through the program.

TSC-4A and TSC-7 Fast/Active Smart Cable The TSC-4A and TSC-7 are multi-use USB interface cable and features a USB A type computer connector and a male BNC (bayonet style) embedded device connector. The BNC connector allows quick and easy attachment of various embedded device adapters (available separately).

TSC-3 Fast/Active Smart Cable The TSC-3 is a multi-use serial interface cable and features a DB9 serial computer connector and a male BNC (bayonet style) embedded device connector. The BNC connector allows quick and easy attachment of various embedded device adapters (available separately).

CN008351-001 Adapter Adapter, female BNC to alligator clips for use with the TSC-7A cable. This adapter is used for systems where programming/download connections are made using the antenna tip or saltwater switch buttons.

TSTR-4 Test Receiver The TSTR-4 provides transmit indication for Argos PTTs (401.650 MHz). Provides both a visual indicator and audio tone with each transmission. Operates on a standard 9 volt battery. Designed specifically for short range (2-3 feet) testing of Argos transmitters.

Legacy Products

This information on discontinued products is provided for individuals who are still using these older systems. Product descriptions may be time sensitive or even outdated. Please contact Telonics if you have questions.

Telonics supports these products as possible based on availability of parts, software, or other considerations; but no longer sells them new.

GEN 3 Store-on-Board Configuration GPS Collars with ARGOS Uplink for animal applications are available for refurbishment only:

The following subsystems are obsolete and are not available to be refurbished:

Photo Gallery

Manual

Lithium Battery Shipping Regulations

Telonics, Inc. ships all systems containing lithium batteries in accordance with United Nation and US Federal regulations for shipping hazardous materials.

49 Code of Federal Regulations
http://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=e8334217c2c8d081457a5156872ad037&tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title49/49cfrv2_02.tpl#0

IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations (current year)

Service Commitment

Since 1970, Telonics has built a reputation based on product quality, product support, service, and customer satisfaction. Telonics strives to produce the highest quality products, and to support those products accordingly.

Because of extreme conditions and the unpredictable nature associated with most telemetry applications, problems occasionally arise. Most problems can be resolved quickly. In all cases, we hope to be able to work in partnership with users to resolve problems to the user's satisfaction and to uphold our demonstrated commitment to excellence. If problems should arise, all products must be returned to our factory for failure analysis.

Warranty: GPS/Argos and Argos only

Telonics warrants its GPS/Argos and Argos only products to be free from defects in material and workmanship for a period of one year from the date acquired. Telonics does not warrant batteries.

If a defect occurs, return the equipment to us within the proper time frame at the following address: TELONICS, 932 E. IMPALA AVENUE, MESA AZ USA 85204-6699. The customer shall arrange for and pay all shipping, insurance and related charges incurred in the shipment to and from Telonics under this warranty. Damage to any equipment resulting from misuse, accidents, unauthorized service, extreme conditions, or other causes, is excluded from this warranty. Telonics does not assume responsibility for loss or damage to equipment during shipment. Telonics does not assume responsibility for delays resulting from shipment on commercial or private carriers. We insure all equipment shipped from our facility and suggest that shipments to Telonics also be insured.

Upon the timely return to our facility, if defective, the product will be replaced or repaired at our discretion at no cost to the customer. This remedy is the exclusive remedy. This product is supplied without any further warranties or conditions, expressed or implied, including warranties of merchantability, quality or fitness for particular reason or those arising by laws, statutes or trade usage or course of dealing.

The entire risk, as to the results and performance of the product, is assumed by the customer. Neither Telonics, nor its suppliers, shall have any liability to the customer or any other person or entity for any indirect, incidental, special, or consequential damage whatsoever, regardless whether Telonics has been told of the possibility of such damages or that such damages might be foreseeable. Telonics has no responsibility or liability for the claims of any third party. The maximum aggregate to the customer, of Telonics and its suppliers, shall not exceed the amount paid by the customer for the product.

Warranty: VHF