VHF, Argos and GPS/Argos Systems for Elephants

Elephant regaining consciousness wearing an early GPS collar system
Asian elephant with early Argos system

VHF Systems Argos Only Systems GPS/Argos Systems

VHF Key Features

  • Two configurable power levels to accommodate either greater range or greater life.
  • Duty cycling to extend operational life
  • Mortality sensing option
  • Activity monitoring option in models containing the MK-8 electronics
  • Field programmability available in units containing the MK-9 electronics
  • Units can be refurbished to their original condition at the factory.

VHF Models

Model Dimensions L x W x H (in, cm) Canister Weight (g) Life @60BPM Std Pow (months) Life @60BPM Min Pow (months) Transmitter Electronics Transmitter Options
MOD-600-1 3.0 x 2.7 x 1.9
7.62 x 6.85 x 4.82
485 151.8 388 MK-8 MS6, MA, MS9, MDC, MS4, MS5

VHF Specifications: Electronic and Packaging

MK8 Transmitter General Specifications

The MK8 Transmitter is a single frequency, microprocessor controlled pulsed-CW transmitter, designed for operation in the 140 - 220 MHz frequency range.

Frequency Range 140 - 220 MHz
Frequency Tolerance ±17 ppm max @ 25°C
±25 ppm max -40°lC < Temp < +60°C
(<7ppm typical w/ variation in load impedance - 6:1VSWR)
(<3ppm typical over supply voltage range at room temperature)
Temperature Range -40°C to +60 °C (Note: Temperature range is for the transmitter only. The power supply must provide the required peak current and voltage requirements for the transmitter over the expected temperature range.)
Shutdown Component Externally shutdown by presence of a small magnet
Output Power
Output Power Option Peak Power Output Levels
Relative to Standard Power
Low 0.5 x
Standard 1 x
High 2 x
Extra high 5 x
RF Pulse Width 15 msec standard
Can optionally be configured from 12 - 255 msec
Pulse Period Configurable from 200 - 10000 msec (6-300 Bpm)
Spurious Emissions Non-coherent Spurs <-50 dBc
Harmonic Suppression Coherent Spurs <-10 dBc
Available Sensors Motion (Hg switch - activity/mortality) - options MS6, MA
Position (Hg switch - head up/head down) - option MS9
Temperature Triggered Mortality Sensor - option MS5
Temperature Measurement Sensor - MS4
Option Resolution at standard center temperature of 37°C Calibrated Accuracy
MS4-400 0.4 deg ±(0.6°C + cal. uncertainty*)
±20°C from center temperature
MS4-400 0.4 deg ±(0.9°C + cal. uncertainty*)
±40°C from center temperature
MS4-410 0.1 deg ±(0.15°C + cal. uncertainty*)
±10°C from center temperature
*(Note: "Cal. uncertainty" is the error inherent in the calibration procedure. This value is dependant on the end users calibration procedure and equipment accuracy.

For example, if the calibration process measures temperature to within ±0.1°C, then the MK8 calibrated accuracy would be:
- For 0.4 deg resolution option
±(0.6deg + 0.1deg) = ±0.7degC (±20°C)
±(0.9deg + 0.1deg) = ±1.0degC (±40°C)

- For 0.1 deg resolution option
±(0.15deg + 0.1deg) = ±0.25degC (±10°C)
Seasonal Timing 8 factory programmable on-off duty cycles - option MDC
Typical timing accuracy of < ± 30 min/yr is reasonable for most applications
Chart reflects known error limits
Temperature (°C) Error Limits (min/yr)
-40°C ~ -73 to -105 (extrapolated)
-20°C -25 to -58
0°C 2.6 to -29
25°C ±16
50°C 2.6 to -29
70°C -25 to -58
FCC Emission Designator 1k00P0N * California Users - The MK8 transmitter exceeds the emission designator requirement of 2k00P0N for operation in California. The MK8's 1k00P0N emission designator is identical to 2k00P0N except that it occupies only half of the 2 kHz bandwidth allowed by the State of California for wildlife tracking.


VHF Systems Argos Only Systems GPS/Argos Systems
 

Argos Only Key Features

  • Flexible Transmission schedules
  • Data compression is available when utilizing the Argos 31 byte message. Fewer messages and more data through.
  • Powerful data collection and transfer capabilities allow the units to acquire, queue, and transmit temperature and activity information.
  • User programmability allows changes in transmission, activity, and temperature schedules as well as Argos ID codes, uplink power levels and Argos frequencies.
  • All data are Stored on Board (SOB) the unit and can be downloaded upon retrieval.
  • The Telonics Data converter (TDC) provides complete data decoding of Argos DS files and supports complete memory downloading. TDC provides a standard csv output file (comma separated value) with time stamps for all data collected. TDC can be run in the "batch mode" for hands off operation.
  • TDC allows you to plot GPS fixes and Argos locations with Google Earth.
  • Shutdown with a small magnet allows users to turn each of these configurations "on" or "off".
  • Units can be refurbished to their original condition at the factory.

Argos Only Models

Model Dimensions L x W x H (in, cm) Canister Weight (g) Estimated Collar Weight (kg) Power Level (mW) Operational Life (hours) Temperature Range (°C) VHF Beacon Onboard
TAW-4710-3 4.25 x 2.7 x 2.3
10.9 x 6.9 x 5.8
875 ~15.28 500 (Typ) 10632 -40 to +70 Yes
TAW-4710H-3 4.25 x 2.7 x 2.3
10.9 x 6.9 x 5.8
875 ~15.28 800 (Typ) 5928 -40 to +70 Yes

1. Reduced power modules are available with approximately 22% increased life. Contact the lab for more information.
2. Operational life expectancy is based on a continuous series of transmissions of a 4-byte Argos message at a 60-second repetition rate at 25°C.

Argos Only Specifications: Electronic and Packaging

TAW-4xxx Specifications (Uses the µGPSI-22 System)

Timing AccuracyTiming is synchronized to GPS time when available. If the GPS time is not then internal timing accuracy is:
6 min/year at 25° C
30 min/yr -20 to +40° C
47 min/yr -40 to +70° C
Available SensorsMortality, Activity, Temperature, Low Voltage
Argos Operating FrequencyARGOS Frequencies:
401.6300MHz to 401.6800MHz in 1 kHz Steps
Brazilian SCD-1: Channels C1 to C9
401.6180MHz to 401.6220MHz in 500Hz Steps
Argos Frequency Stability±0.5 ppm maximum from -30° to +70° C
±2.0 ppm maximum from -40° to -30° C
Argos Initial Frequency Error±0.5 ppm maximum at +23°C, ±2° C
Argos Aging±2.0 ppm maximum after 1 year
Argos RF Power OutStandard Power Version: 400mW (+26dBm) or 500mW (+27dBm) nominal into 50 Ω (User selectable using TPP programming software)
High Power Version (H): 800 mW (29 dbm) ±1db nominal into 50 Ω (User selectable using TPP programming software)

Note 1: Transmit current will increase by approximately 10% from the +25° C measurement. Conversely, at -40° C it will decrease by approximately 10% from the +25° C measurement.
Note 2: Transmit current and RF power out are sensitive to VSWR. Both can be degraded significantly if the antenna or antenna coax are of poor quality or not correctly tuned and matched to the ARGOS/Brazilian frequency band 50 ohm RF output impedance.
Argos Spurs and Harmonics<-40dBc minimum, -60dBc typical (Coherent Spurious)
<-50dBc minimum, -60dBc typical (Non-coherent spurious)
Available VHF Frequency OptionsOption 705 140-154 MHz;
Option 707 144-158 MHz;
Option 715 154-171 MHz;
Option 720 160-177 MHz;
Option 740 174-192 MHz;
Option 750 191-210 MHz;
Option 760 210-237 MHz

The MK10 frequency can be programmed in 100Hz steps within a given frequency range.
VHF Frequency StabilityBetter than ±3ppm at room temperature;
±5 ppm total tolerance over full temperature range
VHF Operating Temperature-40° to + 70°C
VHF Pulse WidthProgrammable (10 to 250 msec)
VHF Pulse PeriodProgrammable (560 to 5000 msec)
Period 1 (normal tracking mode)
Inactive period (if no motion for selected time)
Available VHF SensorsMortality Sensor (parameters are user programmable)
VHF Transmitter TimingProgrammable seasons and duty cycles.
VHF Power OutputProgrammable Medium/High power (measured into 50 Ω load). Effective Isotropic Radiated Power (EIRP) varies, depending on packaging, antenna configuration, and immediate environmental conditions.
* California Users: This transmitter meets the California requirement of EIRP <0.009W for all configurations.
VHF Emission Designator2k00P0N
VHF Harmonic SuppressionBetter than 30dB (>40 dB typical)
VHF Spurious Emissions<-35 dBc at 10kHz offset from carrier
VHF FrequencyAging: <2ppm/yr
Shock: <1ppm 3000g x 0.3ms x ½ sine x 3 directions
VHF VSWRRF output stable to 10:1 VSWR, all phases
Radiated harmonic levels are degraded with poor load VSWR.
Spurious emission specification maintained for >10:1 VSWR
VHF ProgrammingTransmitter parameters programmable via antenna "1-pin" interface and Telonics TPP PC software.

Packaging/Housing Specifications

TAW-4xxx Packing/Housing SpecificationsElectronics are sealed in hermetic metal canisters containing the electronics, batteries, and all interconnects. Glass to metal feed-thru technology is used to exit antennas and power. This packing is hermetic and can be tested utilizing a helium leak bomb test for hermeticity to assure < 1 part in 106 atmospheric CC per second.

Collar Specifications

TAW-4xxx Collar DesignsCollar designs are species specific.

Argos Related Products

TDC Telonics Data Converter Telonics Data Converter (TDC) is used to convert raw data from Telonics transmitters into data reports and to display locations on Google Earth and Google Maps. You can review TDC reports in Microsoft Excel or other spreadsheet programs.

TPP Telonics Product Programmer Telonics Product Programmer (TPP) is a powerful software tool used to program Telonics transmitters, and Telonics CR-5 and CR-7 collar release mechanisms. TPP gives you the ability to modify aspects of your Telonics GEN4 GPS and VHF transmitters including data collection and transmission intervals. TPP is designed for ease of use, with simple point-and-click navigation through the program.

TSC-4A and TSC-7 Fast/Active Smart Cable The TSC-4A and TSC-7 are multi-use USB interface cable and features a USB A type computer connector and a male BNC (bayonet style) embedded device connector. The BNC connector allows quick and easy attachment of various embedded device adapters (available separately).

CN008351-001 Adapter Adapter, female BNC to alligator clips for use with the TSC-7A cable. This adapter is used for systems where programming/download connections are made using the antenna tip or saltwater switch buttons.

TSTR-4 Test Receiver The TSTR-4 provides transmit indication for Argos PTTs (401.650 MHz). Provides both a visual indicator and audio tone with each transmission. Operates on a standard 9 volt battery. Designed specifically for short range (2-3 feet) use with PTT.



VHF Systems Argos Only Systems GPS/Argos Systems
 

GPS/Argos Key Features

  • Lower current consumption provides a 100% increase in operational life or an increase in performance during that same operational time frame.
  • The newest GPS receiver technology provides faster time to fix.
  • Up to 24 positions per day can be recovered through Argos by using the innovative paging date protocol.
  • More flexible programming schedules available to the user.
  • Single printed wiring board construction and higher integration makes the electronics more rugged and increases reliability in high shock/vibration environments.
  • uGPSi 20 is supported by a GUI programming interface (TPP) making it possible for user to program their own systems and simulate the performance of the system prior to deployment.
  • The Telonics Data converter (TDC) provides complete data decoding of Argos DS files and supports complete memory downloading. TDC provides a standard csv output file (comma separated value) with time stamps for all data collected. TDC can be run in the "batch mode" for hands off operation.
  • TDC allows you to plot GPS fixes and Argos locations with Google Earth.
  • Shutdown with a small magnet allows users to turn each of these configurations "on" or "off".
  • Units can be refurbished to their original condition at the factory.

GPS/Argos Models

Configuration Dimensions L x W x H (in, cm) Canister Weight (g) Estimated Collar Weight (kg) 1 YR Operational Life 2 YR Operational Life
TGW-4780-3 4.25 x 2.7 x 2.3
10.9 x 6.9 x 5.8
875 ~15.28 15 min fix interval / Argos uplink 12 hrs every day 40 min fix interval / Argos uplink 6 hrs every day
TGW-4780H-3 4.25 x 2.7 x 2.3
10.9 x 6.9 x 5.8
875 ~15.28 15 min fix interval / Argos uplink 8 hrs every day 1 hr fix interval / Argos uplink 6 hrs every day

*These intervals were calculated on TPP using the following criteria: average environmental temperature of 25°C, expected average time to fix of 75 seconds, Pulse periods; successful GPS fix 1500ms, unsuccessful GPS fix 1000ms, and use scheduled GPS fixes to predict Argos satellite passes

GPS/Argos Specifications: Electronic and Packaging

GPS/Argos Systems

General System Specifications

Timing Accuracy Timing is synchronized to GPS time when available. If the GPS time is not then internal timing accuracy is:
6 min/year at 25° C
30 min/yr -20 to +40° C
47 min/yr -40 to +70° C
Available Sensors Mortality, Activity, Temperature, Low Voltage
Memory Capacity Capable of storing 500K fixes in nonvolatile flash memory in association with other sensor data.

GPS Receiver Specifications

Standby Current 0 µA
Performance 12 channels
-159 dBm tracking sensitivity
-145 dBm acquisition sensitivity
Datum WGS-84
Time to First Fix (TTFF) 40 sec typical (with clear view of sky)

µGPSI-022 VHF Transmitter Specifications

Available Frequency Options Option 705 140-154 MHz
Option 707 146-160 MHz
Option 715 156-172 MHz
Option 720 160-177 MHz
Option 740 174-192 MHz
Option 750 191-210 MHz
Option 760 210-237 MHz

The MK10 frequency can be programmed in 100 Hz steps within a given frequency range.
Frequency Stability Better than ±3 ppm at room temperature;
±5 ppm total tolerance over full temperature range
Operating Temperature -40° to + 70° C (end user must ensure that the power supply/battery can provide the required peak current and voltage)
Pulse Width Programmable (10 to 250 msec)
Pulse Period Programmable (560 to 5000 msec)
3 separate pulse period values selectable:
Period 1 (indicates last GPS fix successful)
Period 2 (indicates last GPS fix unsuccessful)
Mortality period (if no motion for selected time)
Available Sensors Mortality Sensor (parameters are user programmable)
Transmitter Timing Programmable seasons and duty cycles.
Power Output Programmable Low/Medium/High power.
Effective Isotropic Radiated Power (EIRP) varies, depending on packaging, antenna configuration, and immediate environmental conditions.
* California Users: This transmitter meets the California requirement of EIRP <0.009W for all configurations.
Emission Designator 2k00P0N
Harmonic Suppression Better than 30 dB (>40 dB typical)
Spurious Emissions <-35 dBc at 10 kHz offset from carrier
Frequency Aging: <2 ppm/yr
Shock: <1 ppm 3000 g x 0.3 ms x ½ sine x 3 dir
VSWR RF output stable to 10:1 VSWR, all phases
Radiated harmonic levels are degraded with poor load VSWR.
Spurious emission specification maintained for >10:1 VSWR
Programming Transmitter parameters programmable via antenna "1-pin" interface and Telonics TPP PC software.

Packing/Housing Specifications Electronics are sealed in hermetic metal canisters containing the electronics, batteries, and all interconnects. Glass to metal feed-thru technology is used to exit antennas and power. This packing is hermetic and can be tested utilizing a helium leak bomb test for hermeticity to assure < 1 part in 106 atmospheric CC per second.

GPS Antenna Specifications In collar mounted wildlife configurations The GPS antenna is designed to be mounted on the dorsal surface of the neck. The GPS antenna is installed in a high impact nonconductive plastic housing. The form of the housing presents sloping sides so that it will be impervious to chewing and gnawing as is possible. A highly armored antenna cable connects the GPS antenna to the instrument package.

Collar Specifications Collar designs are species specific.

GPS/Argos Related Products

TDC Telonics Data Converter Telonics Data Converter (TDC) is used to convert raw data from Telonics transmitters into data reports and to display locations on Google Earth and Google Maps. You can review TDC reports in Microsoft Excel or other spreadsheet programs.

TPP Telonics Product Programmer Telonics Product Programmer (TPP) is a powerful software tool used to program Telonics transmitters, and Telonics CR-5 and CR-7 collar release mechanisms. TPP gives you the ability to modify aspects of your Telonics GEN4 GPS and VHF transmitters including data collection and transmission intervals. TPP is designed for ease of use, with simple point-and-click navigation through the program.

TSC-4A and TSC-7 Fast/Active Smart Cable The TSC-4A and TSC-7 are multi-use USB interface cable and features a USB A type computer connector and a male BNC (bayonet style) embedded device connector. The BNC connector allows quick and easy attachment of various embedded device adapters (available separately).

TSC-3 Fast/Active Smart Cable The TSC-3 is a multi-use serial interface cable and features a DB9 serial computer connector and a male BNC (bayonet style) embedded device connector. The BNC connector allows quick and easy attachment of various embedded device adapters (available separately).

CN008351-001 Adapter Adapter, female BNC to alligator clips for use with the TSC-7A cable. This adapter is used for systems where programming/download connections are made using the antenna tip or saltwater switch buttons.

TSTR-4 Test Receiver The TSTR-4 provides transmit indication for Argos PTTs (401.650 MHz). Provides both a visual indicator and audio tone with each transmission. Operates on a standard 9 volt battery. Designed specifically for short range (2-3 feet) use with PTT.

Legacy Products

The information below is provided for individuals who are still deploying these older systems. Some of the system information or limitations, information on frequency allocation or usage, and/or comments made on "state of the art" may be time sensitive or even outdated. Please contact Telonics if you have any questions about the information provided in this section.

GEN 3 Store-on-Board Configuration GPS Collars with ARGOS Uplink for animal applications are available for refurbishment only:

The following subsystems are obsolete and are not available to be refurbished:

Photo Gallery

Manual

Lithium Battery Shipping Regulations

Telonics, Inc. ships all systems containing lithium batteries in accordance with United Nation and US Federal regulations for shipping hazardous materials.

49 Code of Federal Regulations
http://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=e8334217c2c8d081457a5156872ad037&tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title49/49cfrv2_02.tpl#0

IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations (current year)

Service Commitment

Since 1970, Telonics has built a reputation based on product quality, product support, service, and customer satisfaction. Telonics strives to produce the highest quality products, and to support those products accordingly.

Because of extreme conditions and the unpredictable nature associated with most telemetry applications, problems occasionally arise. Most problems can be resolved quickly. In all cases, we hope to be able to work in partnership with users to resolve problems to the user's satisfaction and to uphold our demonstrated commitment to excellence. If problems should arise, all products must be returned to our factory for failure analysis.

Warranty: GPS/Argos and Argos only

Telonics warrants its GPS/Argos and Argos only products to be free from defects in material and workmanship for a period of one year from the date acquired. Telonics does not warrant batteries.

If a defect occurs, return the equipment to us within the proper time frame at the following address: TELONICS, 932 E. IMPALA AVENUE, MESA AZ USA 85204-6699. The customer shall arrange for and pay all shipping, insurance and related charges incurred in the shipment to and from Telonics under this warranty. Damage to any equipment resulting from misuse, accidents, unauthorized service, extreme conditions, or other causes, is excluded from this warranty. Telonics does not assume responsibility for loss or damage to equipment during shipment. Telonics does not assume responsibility for delays resulting from shipment on commercial or private carriers. We insure all equipment shipped from our facility and suggest that shipments to Telonics also be insured.

Upon the timely return to our facility, if defective, the product will be replaced or repaired at our discretion at no cost to the customer. This remedy is the exclusive remedy. This product is supplied without any further warranties or conditions, expressed or implied, including warranties of merchantability, quality or fitness for particular reason or those arising by laws, statutes or trade usage or course of dealing.

The entire risk, as to the results and performance of the product, is assumed by the customer. Neither Telonics, nor its suppliers, shall have any liability to the customer or any other person or entity for any indirect, incidental, special, or consequential damage whatsoever, regardless whether Telonics has been told of the possibility of such damages or that such damages might be foreseeable. Telonics has no responsibility or liability for the claims of any third party. The maximum aggregate to the customer, of Telonics and its suppliers, shall not exceed the amount paid by the customer for the product.

Warranty: VHF