ST-18 and ST-14 PTTs

The information below is provided for individuals who are still deploying these older systems. Some of the system information or limitations, information on frequency allocation or usage, and/or comments made on "state of the art" may be time sensitive or even outdated. Please contact Telonics if you have any questions about the information provided on this page.
ST-14(Model A-2400) PTT and ST-18(Model A-200) PTT
Telonics ST-18 PTT (new version of the ST-10)

The ST-18 Argos Certified PTT has been designed for use in numerous tracking applications. The designation ST-18 refers to the digital and radio frequency electronics. The basic configurations listed below have become standard configurations in the marine research field. They have been used for work on both marine turtles and marine mammals in tracking applications where small size is important and there is a minimal data requirement.

The configurations can be turned on and off using a small magnet. When "off", the current consumption of the unit drops to less then 5 µa. The magnet is also used to initiate the unit and begin the duty cycle sequence that is preprogrammed to the user's requirements at the factory.

The transmitted output power delivered to the antenna is between 400 mw and 200 mw depending on the internal battery pack voltage. Because most lithium systems have a very flat discharge curve, the units will typically operate at the 400 mw level through the majority of the operational life, showing reduced power only during the last 10 to 20% of the operational life.

Each system described below is internal cast solid in a polymer that is capable of withstanding the extremely high pressures exerted on the unit during deep ocean dives. Some of our customers have tested units in a hyperbaric chamber to destruction of the unit. In general, the battery system determines how much pressure the unit can withstand. The fully cast ST-18 can withstand pressures exceeding 1500 psi. However, the actual pressure at which the batteries (cells) used in the followingconfigurations are damaged has been documented to be between 1000 psi (750m) and 1500 psi (1000m), depending upon the configuration and time course of the exposure to the extreme pressure. During short exposures (<5 minutes), cells remain operational but show "creases" or "kinks" in the cell case. Long term exposure to such pressures (>24 hours) can result in the case crushing even though the cell functions and continues to deliver current following the damage. All of these configurations have been used on known "deep diving" species with excellent success and long term performance.

The operational temperature range of all three configurations is -20° to + 60° C.

The configurations are fully packaged in a high impact plastic housing and include battery subsystems. The principle difference between the following configurations is battery capacity, which also affects the physical size and weight of the configuration.

ST-18 Configurations

Model Number Dimensions L x W x H (cm) Weight (g) Operational Life (days)*
Duty Cycle: 100% 25% 10%
A-200 9.1 x 4.8 x 2.1 160 29 109 239
A-400 13.4 x 4.7 x 2.1 180 58 220 488
A-800 14.0 x 4.8 x 3.3 305 117 436 959

*Operational life calculations are based on operation at +20° C and an Argos transmission time of 360 msec at a repetition rate of 60 sec. These calculations are based on the assumption that the unit is always on the surface (the animal does not dive). If the animal spends time underwater, the salt water switch will suppress transmissions while the animal is below the surface. For example, if the animal spends 50% of its time below the surface, the operational life of the unit will be double the values stated in the chart above. The operational life at -20° C is approximately 50 to 60 % of the life at room temperature.

ST-18 Salt Water Switch and Antenna Options

The configurations listed above are typically ordered with a salt water switch option that assures synchronization of the Argos transmission with surfacing. The switch also suppresses transmissions while the unit is under water, thus saving power and maximizing operational life of the configuration. The power savings associated with the salt water switch (suppressing transmissions while the animal is under water) is additive to the power savings associated with duty cycling. Further, in some software options the Argos transmissions are suppressed after the animal is "hauled out" for a specified time interval. Under this regime, operational life of the unit is extended by obtaining a few locations after the animal is hauled out and then suppressing the further Argos transmissions during long "haul out" or time on shore. When the animal returns to the sea, Argos transmissions are resumed under control of the existing duty cycle.

Various antenna options are also available to allow the selection of the appropriate antenna material, design and the angle of the antenna relative to the package most appropriate to the species under study.

Many of these selections must be made at the time of order to customize your unit to your requirements. If you are uncertain how to choose among options, our telemetry coordinators can aid and advise you in your selection.

Antenna Orientation and Saltwater Switch Options

Antenna Saltwater Switch Location and Option #
Orientation Option # Front Top
Horizontal 500 541 Not Available
45 Degrees 501 541 542
Vertical 502 Not Available 542

Antenna Reinforcement Options for A-200 and A-400 Models

Without Tygon Tubing - Shrink Layers With Tygon Tubing - Shrink Layers
0 1 2 0 1
Option 520 Option 521 Option 522 Option 530 Option 531

For a detailed Autocad® outline drawing of options 500, 501, 502 & 503 in PDF format, click here.

ST-18 PTT(Model A-200)
ST-18 PTT(Model A-200) using a single layer of Shrink Sleeving(Option 521) on an antenna exiting at 45 degrees(Option 501).
ST-18 PTT(Model A-800)
Left: ST-18 PTT (Model A-800) using a single layer of Shrink Sleeving plus one layer of Tygon (Option 531) on an antenna exiting at 45 degrees (Option 501). Right: ST-18 (Model A-400) using a singlelayer of Shrink Sleeving plus two layers of Tygon (Option 531) on an antenna exiting vertically (Option 502).
ST-18 PTT(Model A-200)
Left: ST-18 PTT (Model A-200). Right: ST-18 PTT (Model A-400).

ST-18 Software Options

Numerous software options are available that allow the researcher to acquire data on such parameters as surface time, dive time, and number of times the animal surfaces. The units also feature a flexible transmission scheduler that allows the researcher to choose specific transmission times to meet research goals.

Software choices for the ST-18 PTT for marine applications include:

LO950413 Location Only: Four bytes of zeros.
BM970702 Location & Surface Counter: Thirty-two bits, including 16-bit surface time counter followed by a second 16-bit message which is a repeat of the first message. The value in each counter should be multiplied by 1.024 to convert to number of seconds on the surface. The count is not made over a specified interval but instead increments continuously until it reaches a value of 65535, at which time it rolls over and begins at zero. By comparing count values with the time coding on individual receptions of the PTT, the surface time between receptions can be calculated. Note: If all time is spent on the surface and the saltwater switch is open, the counter will roll over after approximately 18.6 hours.
FS970102 Location and Animal haul out threshold: Four bytes of zeros. In this software, you can use the salt water switch to suppress transmissions when the PTT is under water. Transmissions can also be suppressed when the animal hauls out for a user-determined length of time. You must define the number of seconds (not to exceed 16,383) that the PTT must be out of water before transmissions are stopped. You must also define the number of seconds (not to exceed 255) that the PTT must be under water, once in the haul out mode, before reverting to the standard Argos transmission.
BW970617 Location & Number of time animal surfaces: Thirty-two bits, including 16-bit number of times animal surfaces followed by a second 16-bit message which is a repeat of the first message. The counter records the number of times the animal has surfaced. The counter continually increments until it reaches a maximum value of 65,535 at which time it rolls over and begins again at 0. Only one count is recorded per surfacing. A new surfacing cannot occur until the animal has been submerged for 6 consecutive seconds.

ST-18 Color Options

The standard color of the PTT is a drab olive green. Other color options are available upon special request and can be selected from the following options:

  • Option 101: Green (standard if not designated)
  • Option 102: Black
  • Option 103: White
  • Option 104: Yellow
ST-18 with special External Helix Antenna
ST-18 PTT with special External Helix Antenna. The unit is yellow (Option 104)

Telonics ST-14 PTT

The ST-14 is larger than both the ST-18 and ST-6 series. It was designed for applications where additional data acquisition, processing, and transmission requirements are important to research goals. The ST-14 supports many of the same sensors as the ST-6 with the exception of the pressure sensor. The ST-14 provides 1.0 watt output power into 50 Ohms over the full operational voltage and temperature range (-40° to +60° C).

Various software options are available allowing the researcher to transmit data including temperature, duration of last dive, average dive duration, the number of dives occurring during a user specified time frame, failsafe flag, and the number of dives since the last transmission.

There are two models of the ST-14 PTT:
Model A-2400 has an external whip antenna. The antenna is protected by the addition of one layer of shrink sleeving and one layer of tygon tubing. Model A-2600 has a fully internal antenna inside the transmitter housing, thus offering maximum protection from abrasion and breakage.

Other customized options can be developed by discussing research objectives with the Telonics telemetry systems coordinators.

ST-14 Configurations

Model Number Dimensions L x W x H (cm) Weight (g) Operational Life (days)*
Duty Cycle: 100% 25% 10%
A-2400 16.5 x 9.8 x 3.0 750 29 103 208
A-2600 18.6 x 10.8 x 5.4 800 29 103 208

*Operational life calculations are based on operation at +20° C and an Argos transmission time of 440 msec at a repetition rate of 60 sec. These calculations assume that the unit is always on the surface (the animal does not dive). If the animal spends time underwater, the salt water switch will suppress transmissions while the animal is below the surface. For example, if the animal spends 50% of its time below the surface, the operational life of the unit will be double the values stated in the chart above. The operational life of the A-2400 and A-2600 at -40° C is approximately 50-60 % of the life at room temperature.

ST-14(Model A-2000), ST-14(Model A-2600)
Left: ST-14 (Model A-2400) with External Whip Antenna.
Right: ST-14 PTT (Model A-2600) with Internal Antenna.

ST-14 Software Options

Software choices for the ST-6 PTT for marine applications include:

ST970213 Location only: Sixty-four bits all zeros.
ST970213 Location, plus temperature, and dive data: Sixty-four bits, including 8-bit temperature, 16-bit last dive time, 16-bit dive time average, 16-bit dive count, 2-bit failsafe flag, 6-bit dippy-dive counter.

ST-14 Color Options

The standard color of the PTT is a drab olive green. Other color options are available upon special request and can be selected from the following options.

  • Option 101: Green (standard if not designated)
  • Option 102: Black
  • Option 103: White
  • Option 104: Yellow

Service Commitment

Since 1970, Telonics has built a reputation based on product quality, product support, service, and customer satisfaction. Telonics strives to produce the highest quality products, and to support those products accordingly.

Because of extreme conditions and the unpredictable nature associated with most telemetry applications, problems occasionally arise. Most problems can be resolved quickly. In all cases, we hope to be able to work in partnership with users to resolve problems to the user's satisfaction and to uphold our demonstrated commitment to excellence. If problems should arise, all products must be returned to our factory for failure analysis.

Warranty

Telonics warrants this product to be free from defects in material and workmanship for the stated operational life of the unit (up to a maximum of two years) if deployed within 1 year from the date acquired. The stated operational life of the unit will be reduced by storage. Telonics does not warrant batteries.

If a defect occurs, return the equipment to us within the proper time frame at the following address: TELONICS, 932 E. IMPALA AVENUE, MESA AZ USA 85204-6699. Damage to any equipment resulting from misuse, accidents, unauthorized service, extreme conditions, or other causes, is, excluded from this warranty. Telonics does not assume responsibility for loss or damage to equipment during shipment. Telonics does not assume responsibility for delays resulting from shipment on commercial or private carriers. We insure all equipment shipped from our facility and suggest that shipments to Telonics also be insured.

Upon the timely return to our facility, if defective, the product will be replaced or repaired at our discretion at no cost to the customer. This remedy is the exclusive remedy. This product is supplied without any further warranties or conditions, expressed or implied, including warranties of merchantability, quality or fitness for particular reason or those arising by laws, statutes or trade usage or course of dealing.

The entire risk, as to the results and performance of the product, is assumed by the customer. Neither Telonics, nor its suppliers, shall have any liability to the customer or any other person or entity for any indirect, incidental, special, or consequential damage whatsoever, regardless whether Telonics has been told of the possibility of such damages or that such damages might be foreseeable. Telonics has no responsibility or liability for the claims of any third party. The maximum aggregate to the customer, of Telonics and its suppliers, shall not exceed the amount paid by the customer for the product.